Adakah sesiapa antara kita pernah terbayang yg matahari akan terbit dari sebelah barat sebagaimana yang Nabi Muhammad saw. beritahu 1400 tahun yg lalu..

Pakar astronomi telah membuat kajian terhadap MARS yg mana arah pusingannya sama dengan Bumi. Tetapi pada tahun 2018 para astronomi mendapati bahawa Mars kelihatan berpusing sebaliknya mengikut arah yang berlawanan dengan matahari terbit di sebelah barat Mars. Ini berlaku selama dua bulan dan Mars berpusing balik semula seperti kebiasaan setelah itu. Ini di namakan sebagai 'Retrograde Motion' dan ianya berlaku di seluruh planet. Bumi adalah jangkaan seterusnya.

Allah berfirman yang apabila matahari terbit dari sebelah barat, pintu KEAMPUNAN akan di tutup. Tiada lagi doa taubat yg akan di terima..

Jangan bazirkan masa ..luangkan lebih banyak masa dgn membaca dan belajar AL-QURAN dan HADIS..SOLAT lima waktu..dan ajarlah anak2 kita tentang Islam..

ISLAM ialah agama yg indah dan ALLAH telah permudahkannya untuk kita melalui Nabi kesayangan kita, NABI MUHAMAD (salam sejahtera buat baginda)...


1.0 Introductory



1.1 Who created you and all the worlds? Allah created me and all the worlds.
1,2 Who created Allah? Allah created us all. He is not created by anyone.
1.3 What are your duties to Allah (the Creator)? My duties to Allah are to have complete Faith (Iman) in Him and to submit myself entirely to His commands.
1.4 How can you have knowledge about Him and His commands? I can have knowledge about Him. and His commands through His Apostles and Prophets.
1.5 What do you understand by an Apostle or a Prophet? An Apostle or a Prophet is a very true and pious man. He is chosen by Allah as His Messenger. Allah inspires him with His commands, and he conveys them to humanity. In this way, we may know the right path to lead a good life in this world and, thus pleasing Allah, may attain peace after death.
1.6 Were Prophets sent by Allah to all nations? Yes, Prophets were sent by Allah to all nations whenever and wherever there was a need for them. When all the nations were in need of one, Allah sent Prophet Muhammad for the whole world.
1.7 What did Prophet Muhammad teach you? Prophet Muhammad has taught me to render complete submission to the commands of Allah, which is called Islam.
1.8 What are the cardinal Articles of Faith in Islam ? The cardinal Articles of Faith in Islam are six in number, viz:

(1) To believe in the oneness of Allah.

(2) To believe in all His Angels.

(3) To believe in all His Books.

(4) To believe in all His Prophets

(5) To believe in the Day of Resurrection and To believe in the Day of Judgement.

(6) To believe that the power of doing all actions (whether good or bad) proceeds from Allah, but that we are responsible for our actions.

1.9 What are the Fundamental Principles of Islam? The Fundamental Principles of Islam are five in number, viz:

(1) The declaration of La ilaha illallah Muhammad-ur-rasoolullah, meaning: There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is His Prophet.

(2) The observance of the obligatory prayers five times a day.

(3) distribution of Zakat (Islamic alms-fee) among the deserving amounting to one fortieth in one's possession for a complete year.

(4) The observation of fasts during the daytime in the month of Ramadan.

(5) The performance of Hajj (Pilgrimage) to Mecca, at least once in a lifetime, if circumstances permit.


2.0 Iman

2.1 Oneness of Allah
2.1.1 What do you mean by belief in the Oneness of Allah? By belief in the Oneness of Allah, I mean that Allah is one and that there is none like Him; He has no partner; He neither begets nor is He begotten; He is indivisible in person; He is eternal; He is infinite; He has neither beginning nor end; He is All-Mighty, the All-Knowing, the All-Just, the Cherisher of all worlds, the Patron, the Guide, the Helper, the Merciful, the Compassionate, etc.
2.1.2 Where is Allah? Allah is everywhere. (The short and simple answer ). ( Information )

(Allah Most High exists beyond time, space, location and 'physical' direction; He is where He has always been.)

2.1.3 Does Allah know all the actions you do on earth? Certainly, Allah knows all the actions I do on earth, both good and bad. He even knows my secret thoughts.
2.1.4 . What has Allah done for you? Allah has created me and all the worlds. He loves and cherishes me. He will reward me in Heaven for all my good actions and punish me in Hell for all my evil deeds.
2.1.5 . How can you win the love of Allah? I can win the love of Allah by complete submission to His Will and obedience to His Commands
2.1.6 . How can you know the Will and Commands of Allah? I can know the Will and Commands of Allah from the Holy Qur'an and from the Traditions of our Prophet Muhammad (May peace and blessing of Allah be upon him).
2.1.7 . What is Iman (Faith)? Iman means "to believe in", [i.e., to have] a firm and sincere belief in the cardinal Articles of Faith.
2.1.8 . What is Islam? Islam means "complete submission", i.e., submitting to the orders of Allah and acting in accordance with His Commands.
Note: One who professes Iman is called a Mu'min (The Faithful), and one who observes all the principles of Islam is called a Muslim.
2.2 The Angels of Allah
2.2.1. What kind of creatures are the Angels? Angels are spiritual creatures of Allah, ever obedient to His Will and Commands. They are neither male nor female; they have neither parents, nor wives, nor husbands, nor sons, nor daughters. They have no material bodies, but can assume any form they like.
2.2.2. Do Angels eat and drink like human beings? Angels do not eat and drink like human beings, nor do they enjoy sleep.
2.2.3. Can you name some of the most important Angels of Allah? Yes, the most important Angles of Allah are four in number, viz.,

(a) Jibreel (b) Mika'il (c) Israfeel (d) 'lzra'eel

2.2.4. Are there any other Angels besides those enumerated? Yes, there are many other Angels, some of whom mentioned in the Qur'an are known to us, but we have no knowledge about the number, names and duties of others, which are known only to Allah.
2.2.5. What do you know about Angel Jibreel Angel Jibreel was employed by Allah to convey His Messages to His Chosen Ones on earth and the Prophets, who appeared in all ages and all climes. It was the Angel Jibreel who communicated the revelations of Allah to our Prophet Muhammad (May peace and blessings of be upon him).
2.2.6. Can you name some of the main qualities of Angels? Yes, the main qualities of Angels are purity, righteousness, truthfulness and obedience to the Will and Commands of Allah.
2.2.7. Can Angels do anything on earth without the express permission of Allah? No, the Angels only act in obedience to the Commands of Allah; hence they cannot do anything on earth without His order.
2.2.8. Do you worship Angels? No, I do not worship the Angels at all. I adore and pray Allah alone. Angels are the servants of Allah and they too worship Him. The Holy Qur'an explicitly says that we should not worship anyone but Allah nor should we associate any partner with Him.
2.3 The Books of Allah
2.3.1. What do you mean by belief in all the Books of Allah? By belief in all the Books of Allah I mean that Allah revealed Commandments and Codes of Religion to various Prophets at different stages of history for the guidance of mankind.
2.3.2. Do you know the names of Codes of Religion or the Books of Allah? Yes, the Codes of Religion or the Books of Allah are four in number, viz.,

(1) Taurat (Old Testament) (2) Zaboor (Psalms) (3) Injeel (New Testament) (4) The Holy Qur'an.

2.3.3. What are the names of the respective Prophets to whom these books were revealed? Taurat was revealed to Prophet Moosa (Moses), Zaboor to Prophet Dawood (David), Injeel to Prophet Isa (Jesus), and the Holy Qur'an to Prophet Muhammad (May peace and blessings of Allah be upon them all!).
2.3.4. Do the Taurat, Zaboor and Injeel exist in their original forms? No, they do not exist in their original forms. The present-day editions are only interpretations by their respective followers of later ages.
2.3.5. Which Code of Religion do you follow? I follow the last Code of Religion, the Holy Qur'an.
2.3.6. What is the Holy Qur'an? The Holy Qur'an is the Gospel of the Religion of Islam. The previous Commandments and the Codes of Religion are also incorporated in it. Its verses were inspired and revealed by Allah to Prophet Muhammad through Angel Jibreel, and they are still preserved intact in their original form in the Arabic language.

2.3.7. Were the verses of the Holy Qur'an revealed to Prophet Muhammad at one and the same time? No, the verses of the Holy Qur'an were not revealed to Prophet Muhammad at one and the same time. They were revealed to him either singly or in batches during the last twenty-three years of his life, and were written down at his dictation and arranged under his direction during his lifetime.
2.3.8 What does the Holy Qur'an teach you? The Holy Qur'an teaches me to worship Almighty Allah, Him and Him alone, to obey His orders contained therein, to follow the teachings and examples set by Prophet Muhammad, to do good to others, especially to my parents and relations, and to be honest and truthful in all my actions and dealings; in short, it gives me a complete Code for the rightful guidance of my life.
2.4 The Prophets of Allah
2.4.1. What do you mean by belief in all the Prophets of Allah? By belief in all the Prophets of Allah, I mean that at different stages of the History of Mankind, Allah sent Prophets as His Messengers for the guidance of mankind. I believe in all of them in general, and in those whose names are mentioned in the Holy Qur'an in particular. I cannot personify anyone as a Prophet if his name is not so mentioned in the Divine Book, nor can I deny the prophethood of any one whose name is so mentioned in the Divine Book.
2.4.2. Do you know the names of all the Prophets who delivered the Message of Allah to mankind? No, I do not know the names of all the Prophets who delivered the Message of Allah to man- kind, but the names of some of the great Prophets are mentioned in the Holy Qur'an.
2.4.3. Can you give a list of the Prophets whose names are mentioned in the Holy Qur'an? Yes. Among the Prophets whose names are mentioned in the Holy Qur'an are: Adam, ldrees, Noah, Hood, Saleh, lbrahim (Abraham), Isma'il (Ishmael), Ishaq (Issac), Ya'qoob (Jacob). Yusuf (Joseph), Ayyoob, Shuaib, Moosa (Moses), Haroon (Aaroon), Loot (Lot), Yoonus (Jones), AI-Yas'a, Zulkifl, Dawood (David), Sulaiman (Solomon), llya (Elias), Zakaria (Zacharias), Yahya, 'Isa (Jesus) and Muhammad.
2.4.4. Who are the most important from among these Prophets? They are: Adam, Noah, lbrahim, Moosa, 'Isa and the last and the greatest of all prophets, Muhammad (May peace and blessings of Allah be upon them all!)
2.4.5. Who is a Prophet and what is his duty? A Prophet is a Servant and Messenger of Allah who receives the Divine revelations. He is a model for human beings and teaches and practises the Commands of Allah.
2.4.6. Do you worship any of the Prophet? No, I do not worship any of the Prophets, but only love and revere them and consider them as models of conduct for myself as well as humanity at large. The Prophets themselves worshipped Allah and taught us to do the same.
2.4.7. Can any of the Prophets be called God? None of the Prophets can be called God, for they were all created by Allah Who is Self-Existing and has no partner.
2.4.8. Did any of the Prophets claim Divinity? None of the Prophets claimed Divinity, for, besides being Messengers and Servants of Allah, they themselves were human beings.
2.4.9. To what land and to what nation did Prophet Muhammad proclaim the Message of Allah? As all the nations of the world had either lost or forgotten the Messages delivered by the Prophets sent to them, Prophet Muhammad proclaimed the Message of Allah to all lands and to all nations. His prophethood is, therefore, not confined to any one land or one nation, but is universal, i.e., for the whole world and for all the nations.
2.4.10. Is there any need of a Prophet after Prophet Muhammad? No, there is no need of a Prophet after Prophet Muhammad, for the Message, i.e., the Holy Qur'an (that he has brought for the whole world) is the final and most complete Code of Religion, and is and will be preserved for all time absolutely intact in its original form; besides the authentic record of the Prophet's eventful life covering all human activities is also extant, and will always remain as a Model for mankind. Hence no Prophet either with or without code and commandments, is required after him, and therefore the Holy Qur'an says that Prophet Muhammad is the last and the Seal of all Prophets.
2.5 The Day of Resurrection and Judgment.
2.5.1. What do you know about the Day of Resurrection and Judgment? It is the Day on which Allah will resurrect the dead, i.e., make the dead live again. He will then judge each person according to his good or bad actions on earth. He will reward those who led righteous lives and pleased Him, by sending them to Heaven, and punish those who have disobeyed His Commands and incurred His displeasure by committing sins and bad actions, by consigning them to Hell.
2.5.2. What are Heaven and Hell? Heaven is an abode of peace and happiness where every wish Is fulfilled. Hell is a place of torture, pain and agony.
2.5.3. How long will a person remain in Heaven or Hell? A person who dies with complete Faith in the Oneness of Allah and in the Prophet of Allah will remain in Heaven forever, while a person who dies without having any belief in the Oneness of Allah and in the Prophets of Allah or having belief in others as partners of Allah will remain in Hell forever.
2.5.4. What will be the fate of those who die with complete Faith in the Oneness of Allah and in the Prophets of Allah, but have committed sins? Those who have firm belief in the Oneness of Allah and in the Prophets of Allah, but die without atoning for and repenting sins they have committed in this world, will be sent to Hell for a time, from where, after receiving due punishment, they will be liberated by the Mercy of Allah and sent to Heaven, where they will live forever.
2.6 The Power of Doing Good or Evil (Qada & Qadar - Devine Will and Decree)
2.6.1. What do you understand by your belief in the power of doing good or evil proceeding from Allah and Allah alone? I mean that Allah has given me the power of action (good or bad), but He has also given me reason and a code of life to choose between good and evil, and therefore, I am responsible for my actions. For example, Allah has given me the power of speech. It is for me to use the tongue for speaking the truth, or abuse its power by speaking lies.
2.6.2. How does Allah help you to do good acts? Allah helps us to do good acts by sending Messengers to guide us all along the right path, and Codes of Religion.
2.6.3. What is a sin? Any action against the Commands of Allah is a sin.
2.6.4. Who can forgive sins? Allah and Allah alone can forgive sins.
2.6.5. What should you do so that Allah may forgive your sins? In order that my sins be forgiven, I must pray to Allah with all my heart and, while atoning for all my evil deeds, resolve never to commit any such or other misdeeds again.
2.6.6. Which articles of food and drink have been decreed unlawful for a Muslim? The articles of food and drink that have been decreed unlawful for a Muslim are:

(1) All kinds of intoxicating wines, liquors and spirits.

(2) Flesh of swine and all wild animals that employ claws or teeth for killing their victims, e.g., tigers, leopards, elephants, wolves, etc., and all birds of prey as hawks, eagles, vultures, crows, etc.

(3) Rodents, reptiles, worms, etc.,

(4) Flesh of dead animals that are otherwise sanctioned as legitimate.

(5) Flesh of animals and birds (sanctioned) that are not slaughtered or slain in the prescribed manner.

(6) Flesh of animals that are offered as sacrifice to Idols.

2.6.7. How should an animal or a bird whose flesh is sanctioned to be lawful for food be slaughtered or slain? . One should say "Bismillahi Allahu-Akbar'' at the time of slaughtering of slaying an animal or a bird whose flesh is sanctioned to be lawful for food, and pass the knife over its throat in such a manner that the main arteries are cut asunder, but the spinal chord is left alone for a while till all the blood oozes out.
2.6.8. Can you name some of the acts that are major sins and are liable for severe punishment ? Yes. Some of the acts that are major sins and are liable for severe punishment are:

(1) To believe in anyone as partner of Allah.

(2) To disbelieve in Allah or His Prophets or His Books, or to deny any of the Fundamental Principles of Islam.

(3) To lie.

(4) To commit adultery or sodomy.

(5) To rob or steal.

(6) To cheat or deceive anyone.

(7) To bear false witness.

(8) To bring false charge against anyone.

(9) To backbite.

(10) To abuse anybody or injure anyone's feelings.


3.0 Islam.

The Fundamental Principles of Islam

3.1 The Declaration of Faith (about the Prophet Muhammad p.b.u..h.)
3.1.1. What is the first principle of Islam? The first principle of Islam is to declare: La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammad-ur-rasool-ullah.

There is no deity but Allah and Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah."

3.1.2. Are there any other forms of the Declaration of Faith? Yes, there are four other forms, viz.:

(1) kalimatush-shahadat

Declaration or submission of evidence, viz.,

ashhadu a la ilaha ill-Allahu wahdahu la sharika lahu wa ashhadu anna Muham- madan 'abduhu wa rasooluh

I bear witness that there is no deity but Allah, Who is without partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His Servant and Apostle.'

(2) kalimatut-tamjeed

Declaration of the Glory of Allah, viz.,

Subhana-Allahi walhamdu lillahi wa la ilaha ill-Allahu wallahu Akbar, wa la haula wa la quwwata ilia billahil 'aliyyil-'Azeem.

'Glory be to Allah and praise; there is no deity but Allah; Allah is Most Great; there is no power, no might but from Allah, the Most High, the Great.'

3) kalimtut-tauhid

Declaration of the Oneness of Allah: viz.,

La ilaha ill-Allahu wahdahu la sharika lahu, lahul mulku wa lahul hamdu, Yuhyi wa Yumeetu, biyadihil-khairu, wa huwa 'ala kulli shai-in Qadeer.

"There is none worthy of worship but Allah; He is One and has no partner; His is the Kingdom (of the whole universe) and unto Him is due all Praise; He gives life and He causes death; In His hand is all good, and He has power over all things.

(4) kalimatu raddil-kufr

Declaration of the Refutation of Disbelief, viz.,

Allahumma inni a'oozu bika min an ushrika bika shai'an wa ana a'lamu wa astaghfiruka lima la a'lamu innaka anta 'Allam ul-ghuyoobi tubtu 'anhu wa tabar- r'atu 'an kulli deenin siwa deen il-Islami wa aslamtu wa aqoolu la ilaha ill-Allahu Muhammad-ur-rasool-ullah.

'O Allah! verily do I seek refuge in Thee from associating any partner with Thee knowingly; I beseech Thy forgiveness for the sins which I am not aware of; verily, Thou art the Best Knower of all secrets. I repent for all the sins and make myself proof against all teachings except the teachings of Islam. I have entered the fold of Islam, and I hereby declare: There is no deity but Allah and Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah.

3.1.3. Who was Muhammad? Muhammad was the Rasool, i.e., the Messenger and Prophet of Allah who received the Message from Allah through Divine revelation and conveyed the same to humanity.
3.1.4. Where was the Prophet Muhammad born? Muhammad, the Messenger and Prophet of Allah, was born at Makkah in Arabia.
3.1.5. Do you know the genealogy (lineage or pedigree) of the Prophet Muhammad? Yes. I can name up to his father's great-grandfather, and know that he is descended from Prophet Abraham. He was the son of 'Abdullah, who was the son of 'Abdul Muttalib, who was the son of Hashim, who was the son of 'Abd Manaf.
3.1.6. How was the Prophet brought up? 'Abdullah, the Prophet's father died before his birth, and he lost his mother, Amina, during his infancy. He was then for a short time under the care of his grandfather, 'Abdul Muttalib, who also expired a few years later. His uncle, Abu Talib then became his guardian.
3.1.7. How was the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) educated? He did not receive any instruction through human agency, and as such, he did not know how to read or write. His education was solely due to Divine Sources.
3.1.8. When and where was the Message of Allah first revealed to our Prophet? The Message of Allah was first revealed to our Prophet through angel Jibreel (Gabriel), at the age of forty, in the cave at the foot of Mt. Hira in Makkah.
3.1.9. What regard had the people of Makkah for our Prophet before he announced his Prophethood? The people of Makkah had a very great regard for him. They honoured and respected him for his integrity and honesty, and were so much impressed by them and the nobility and gentleness of his character that thev conferred upon him the title of i.e., the Trustworthy, before he proclaimed his Prophethood.
3.1.10. Did the people of Makkah in general accept Muhammad as a Prophet when he first delivered to them the Message from Allah? No. The people of Makkah in general did not accept Muhammad as a Prophet, when he first delivered to them the Message of Allah against idols and idolatry. Only a few embraced Islam. Others persecuted him and his followers so much that he, along with his followers, was compelled to seek refuge in Medina.
3.1.11. What is the migration of onr Prophet from Makkah to Medina called? The migration of our Prophet from Makkah to Medina is called AL HIJRA. The Muslim Calendar commences from the day of the migration.
3.1.12. How did the people of Medina receive our Prophet? Most of the people of Medina received our Prophet with kindness, believed in his teaching and mission and embraced Islam.
3.1.13. When did our Prophet die and where was he buried? Our Prophet died at the age of sixty-three and was buried in Medina, where his tomb now stands.
3.1.14. Should we visit the tomb of our Prophet? Yes, we should visit the tomb of our Prophet at Medina, preferably after the performance of Hajj (Pilgrimage) to Makkah, for our Prophet has said:

"whoever (of my followers) visits my tomb it is binding on me to plead for (Mercy and Forgiveness) on his (or her) behalf (on the Day of Judgment)."

3.1.15. Should you love your Prophet? Yes, I should love my Prophet and pay greater respect to him than to any other human being including my parents.
3.2 Prayer.
3.2.1. What is the second Principle of Islam ? The second Principle of Islam, is to offer the obligatory prayers five times a day.
3.2.2. What do you understand by Prayer? Prayer is the act of worshipping Allah according to the teaching of the Holy Prophet.
3.2.3. What are the essential requisites for offering Prayer? The essential requisites tor offering Prayer are:

(1) The worshipper must be a Muslim.

(2) The worshipper's clothes and body must be free from all impurities.

(3) The place where the Prayer is to be offered should be pure and clean.

(4) The part of the body between the navel and the knees of a male worshipper must be fully covered, and the whole body excepting the hands and face of a female worshipper.

(5) The worshipper must face the Ka'ba in the Great Mosque at Makkah and the direction of Ka'ba outside Makkah.

(6) The worshipper must form the Niyyat (i.e., intention) in his or her mind of the particular Prayer, Fardhu (obligatory) or Sunnat or Nafl (optional), he or she is about to offer.

(7) The worshipper must observe the times and rules prescribed for the respective Prayers.

(8) The worshipper must have performed the Wudu (i.e., ablution).

(9) The worshipper must have performed Ghusl (i.e., the washing of the whole body), if he or she was in a state of grave impurity.

Note: In order to keep the body clean from dirt and all minor impurities and to be ever ready for prayer, a Muslim must wash the private parts of his or her body with water whenever any impure matter issues from the body.

3.2a Wudu (Ablution)
3.2a.4. What is Wudu? Wudu is the act of washing those parts of the body which are generally exposed.
3.2a.5. How do you perform the Wudu? I perform the Wudu in the following manner:

(1) I make myself sure that the water with which I am going to perform Wudu is pure, clean and fresh (not used before) and its colour, taste and smell are unchanged.

(2) I form and have the full intention of performing the Wudu for offering prayer.

(3) I recite: "Bismillahir-Ralimanir-Rahim", i.e., in the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

(4) I then wash my hands upto the wrists three times, passing the fingers in between each other.

(5) I cleanse my mouth with brush or finger, and gargle with water three times.

(6) Then I rinse the nostrils thrice with water.

(7) I wash the face from the forehead to the chin bone and from ear to ear three times.

(8) I then wash the right arm followed by the left up to the elbows three times.

(9) I then brush up the whole head with wet hands, pass the wet tips of the index finger inside and the wet tips of the thumb outside the ears, and pass over the other surface of the hands over the nape and the sides of the neck.

(10) I tnen wash the feet up to the ankles, the right foot first and then the left, taking care to wash in between the toes, each three times.

3.2a.6. What are the obligatory acts in the performance of Wudu? The obligatory acts in the perfonmance of Wudu are four, viz.:

(1) Washing the face.

(2) Washing both the arms up to the elbows.

(3) Brushing over a quarter of the head with wet hands.

(4) Washing both feet up to the ankles.


(1) If the water to be used for Wudu be stagnant, one should make sure that the cistern measures ten yards by ten yards by one foot and is full of water.

(2) If a person wears impermeable foot-gear after the performance of the Wudu, it is not necessary to remove it for a fresh Wudu. One may just pass over it wet fingers as if one were tracing lines on it. Travellers can take advantage of this concession for three days and three nights, others for one day and one night.

3.2b Ghusl (Bath)
3.2b.7. When does ghusl become obligatory ? Ghusl becomes obligatory after:

(1) Sexual intercourse. (2) Discharge or effusion of semen. (3) Completion of menses and confinement.

3.2b.8. Can you name the obligatory conditions that most be fulfilled for a valid performance of an obligatory ghusl? The obligatory condition that must be fulfilled for a valid performance of an obligatory ghusl are:

(1) To rinse the mouth thoroughly, so that all the parts are cleaned properly.

(2) To rinse the nose right up to the nasal bone.

(3) To wash all the parts of the body thoroughly, including the hair.

3.2b.9. What is the best way of performing an obligatory ghusl? The best way of performing an obligatory ghusl is:

(1) The person should have the intention (niyyat) to cleanse the body from grave impurity at the time of performing the bath.

(2) He or she should wash the hands up to the wrists thrice.

(3) Then the private parts must be washed thoroughly thrice.

(4) Filth must be removed, if there be any, from any of the parts of the body.

(5) One should then perform an ablution.

(6) One should lastly wash thrice all the parts of the body, including the hair thoroughly.

3.2c Tayammum
3.2c.10 Q. What should a person do in place of wudu or ghusl if one is sick or no access to water? When a person is sick or having problems getting water, one may perform what is called tayammum in place of wudu or ghusl.
3.2c.11. What are the essential requisites for the performance of a tayammum ? The essential requisites for the performance of a tayammum are:

(1) To have the intention in mind to perform the tayammum for the removal of impurities.

(2) To strike pure earth lightly with the palms cf both hands.

(3) To pass the palms of the hands over the face once.

(4) To again strike lightly pure earth with the palms of both hands and rub alternately from the tips of the fingers to the elbows, the forearms and the hands.

3.2d Miscellaneous Notes
3.2d.12. Do you know the acts or circumstances which make wudu void? Yes; the acts or circumstances which make the wudu void are:

(1) Answering the call of nature; discharge of semen or issue of worm or sandy stone [bowel movement] or any impure matter from the front or the hind private parts.

(2) The passage of wind from the hind private part.

(3) The act of vomiting a mouthful of matter.

(4) Emission of blood, puss or yellow matter from a wound, boil, pimple., etc., to such an extent that it passes the limits of the mouth of the wound, etc.

(5) Loss of consciousness through sleep, drowsiness, etc.

(6) Temporary insanity, fainting fit, hysteria or intoxication.

(7) Audible laughter during prayer.

3.2d.13. Do the same occurrences nullify tayammum also? Yes; the same occurrences nullify tayammum also, but in addition tayammum is nullified as soon as the cause for performing it is removed, i.e., if the sick person recovers, or, if recourse has been taken to it for lack of water, and access to water becomes possible.
3.2d.14. What acts are forbidden without the performance of wudu or the tayammum as the case may be? The following three acts are forbidden without the performance of wudu or tayammum as the case may be:

(1) Prayer. (2) Walking round the Holy Ka'ba in Makkah. (3) Carrying or touching the Holy Qur'an.

Note: Children who have not attained the age of discretion, i.e., about seven years, can carry the Holy Qur'an for the purpose of studying.

3.2d.15. Does wudu convey any inner meaning besides the cleanliness of the body? Yes, the primary object is cleanliness or purity, but spiritual cleanliness and purity, i.e. freedom from sins which is the main object of religion. It is pereferable, therefore, to recite the following after the wudu:

Allahummaj'alni minattawwabeena waj'aini minal mutatahahhireen.

O Allah! make me from among those who repent for their sins and from among those who keep themselves pure.

3.2e Azan
3.2e.16. What is azan? Azan is the first call to Prayer.
3.2e.17. When and why is the azan uttered? The azan is uttered in a loud voice to announce to the faithful that it is time for ther obligatory prayer and to invite them to offer the same.
3.2e.18. How Is azan recited? Azan is recited in a loud voice by the muezzin (the crier) facing the direction of the Ka'ba in the following words which are said in the order mentioned:

(1) Allahu Akbar "Allah is most Great" (four times).

(2) Ash-hada al la illaha ill-Allah. "I bear witness that there is none worthy of being worshipped except Allah." (twice).

(3)Ash-hadu anna Mahammad-ar-rasoolallah "I bear witness that Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah" (twice).

(4) Hayya 'alas-Salah "Come to Prayer" (turning the face alone to the right and saying it twice).

(5) Hayya 'alal-falah "Come to Success" (turning the face alone to the left and saying it twice).

(6) Allahu Akbar "Allah Is Most Great" (twice).

(7) La ilaha ill-Allah "There is no deity but Allah (once).

Note: The following phrase is added after Item (5) in the azan of the early morning prayer, viz., (5a)

"As-salatu khairum minannaum" "Prayer is better than sleep" (to be said twice).

3.2f Iqamat
3.2f.19 Q. What is Iqamat and when is it uttered? Iqamat is the second call to prayer and is uttered immediately before the beginning of the obligatory prayer (fardhu). It is similar to Azan but with the addition of the sentence, "Qad qamatis-salah" i.e., "prayer has indeed begun", to be uttered twice after item (5) above.
3.2g The Obligatory and Essential Factors of Prayer
3.2g.20 Q. What are the obligatory (fardhu) factors in prayer? The obligatory factors in a prayer are seven in number:

(1) To say takbir-i-tahrimah.

(2) Qiyam, i.e., standing erect and placing the right hand upon the left below the navel.

(3) To recite some verses from the Holy Qur'an.

(4) Ruku', i.e., bowing down in such a way as to grasp the knees with the hands keeping the back in a straight line so as to form a right angle with the legs.

(5) Sajdah, i.e., prostrating in such a way that both the palms of the hands, the forehead, the nasal bone, the knees and the toes of both feet touch the ground; there must be sufficient space between the arms and the chest and the legs and the belly so that they do not touch each other but remain separate.

(6) Qa'dah, i.e., sitting down in a reverential posture, keeping the right foot erect on the toes and the left one in a reclining position under the rumps.

(7) To signify the completion of prayer by word or action.

3.2g.21 Q. Can you name some of the essentials (wajib) of prayer? The observance of the following points are very essential in any prayer.

(1) To say takbir-i-tahrima, viz., "Allahu Akbar."

(2) To recite the opening chapter of the Holy Qur'an (the Fatiha).

(3) To recite any of the other chapters of the Holy Qur'an.

(4) The recitation of the opening chapter must precede the recitation of any other chapter of the Holy Qur'an.

(5) To assume all the postures correctly, i.e., undignified haste must not be practised in changing the postures and reasonable pauses must be observed at each stage.

3.2h Performance of Prayer
3.2h.22 Q. Can you give a complete description of the performance of prayer?

Yes. A Prayer consists of either two, three or four Rak'ats, and a Rak'at is performed thus:

(i) Stand erect, facing the direction of Ka'ba in Makkah, and after having the niyyat, (the intention) of what prayer about to offer and preferably uttering it to oneself;

(ii) Raise both hands up to the ears and, saying "Allahu Akbar," and then bring them down and place the right hand upon the left around the navel.

(iii) Then recite:

(a) A'oozu billahi minash-shaitanir-rajeem 'I betake myself to Allah for refuge from the accursed Satan.'

(b) Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem. '(I begin) In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.'

I Then recite the Opening Chapter of the Holy Qnr'an (the Fatiha), viz., Alhamdu lillahi Rabbil- 'aalameen ar-Rahman-ir-Rahim, Maliki yaum-id-deen, iyyaka na'budu wa iyyaka nasta'een; ihdinas-sirat-al-mustaqeem sirat-alla-dheenaaa'amta 'alaihim ghairil maghdoobi 'alaihi wal-lad-daalleen. Ameen!

All Praise is due to Allah, Lord of the worlds, the Beneficent, the Merciful, Owner of the Day of Judgment. Thee alone we worship and Thee alone we ask for help. Show us the straight path, the path of those whom Thou hast favoured, not (the path of) those who earn Thine anger nor (of) those who go astray. Amen!'

(d) Immediately follow up this by reciting some passage from the Holy Qur'an. For this purpose any one of the small chapters may be selected, as for instance, the chapter termed "The Unity" viz.: Qul huw-Allahu Ahad, Allahus-Samad, lam yalid wa lam yoolad, wa lam yaku lahoo kufuwanahad

'Say: He is Allah, the One, - Allah, the eternally besought of all! He begets not, nor is He begotten. And there is none comparable unto Him.'

(e) Then, saying "Allahu Akbar," bow down in Ruku' and say thrice: Subhana Rabbiyal-'Azeem 'How glorious is my Lord the Great!'

(f) Again assume the standing position letting the hands remain on the sides and say: Sami' Allahu liman hamidah. Rabbana lakal-hamd.

'Allah has listened to him who has praised him. Our Lord praise be to Thee.

(g) Then. Saying "Allahu Akbar, " Then prostrate and perform the Sajdah, saying thrice: Subhana Rabbiyal-a-la.

'All glory be to my Lord, the Most High.' Lord, the Great!'

(h) Then rise and, sitting for a while in a reverential posture, termed Jalsah, say once: Allahummaghfirli war-hamni .. and so on

O Allah! forgive me and have mercy upon me.'

(i) Then perform the second Sajdah exactly in the same way as the first one. This finishes one Rak'at. Then say "Allahu Akbar", and standing erect once again, repeat all the steps in the performance of the first Rak'at.

(j) After the second Rak'at's second Sajdah is over, saying "Allahu Akbar," sit down in the reverential posture called, Qa'da-tul-Oola (first sitting) or Qa'da-tul-Akhira (last sitting) as the case may be, and recite Tashahud alone in the former case, viz.: At-tahiyyatu lillahi was- salawata wat-taiyyabatu assalamu 'alaika ayyu-hannabiyyu wa rahma-ullahi wa barakatuhu assalamu 'alaina wa 'ala 'ibadlllah-is-salliheen, ash-hadu an la ilaha ill-Allahu wa ashhadn anna Muhammadan 'abduhoo wa rasooluh.

'All reverence, all worship, all sanctity are due to Allah. Peace be on you O Prophet! And the Mercy of Allah and His Blessings. Peace be on us and all the righteous servants of Allah. I bear witness to the fact that none is deserving of worship except Allah and I bear witness to the fact that Muhammad is His servant and Apostle.'

(k) If more than two Rak'ats are to be performed, stand up again, saying "Allahu Akbar," and completing one or two Rak'ats, as the case may be, sit down in the reverential posture called "Qa'datul-Akhira, which is also obviously adopted if the prayer consists of two Rak'ats only. In the reverential posture, recite in addition to Tashahud, the salawat, viz., Allahumma salli 'ala sayyidina Muharomadin wa 'ala ali sayyidina Muhammadin kama sallaita 'ala sayyidina Ibrahima wa 'ala ali sayyidina Ibrahim. Allahumma barik 'ala sayyidina Muhammadin wa 'ala ali sayyidina Muhammadin kama barakta 'ala sayyidina Ibrahima wa 'ala ali sayyidina Ibrahima innaka Hamidun Majeed.

'O Allah! Shower Thy blessings on our leader Muhammad and his descendants as Thou showerest Thy blessings on our leader Abraham and his descendants; verily, Thou art the Praiseworthy, the Glorious.

'O Allah! bless our leader Muhammad and his descendants as Thou blessest our leader Abraham and his descendants; verily, Thou art the Praiseworthy, the Glorious.'

(l) Then turn our face to the right and say the salaam: Assalamu 'alaikum wa rahmatulah

'Peace be upon you and the mercy of Allah.'

Then turn our face to the left and repeat the same. Thus the prayer is completed.

3.2h.23 Q. What should a worshipper do if he or she unconsciously omits any of the essentials of prayer or suspects that he or she has performed more than the prescribed number of ruku's, sajdahs, rak'ats, etc.? If a worshipper omits any of the essentials of a prayer or suspects that he or she has performed more than the required number of rnku's, sajdahs, rak'ats, etc., he or she should perform two sajdahs, and recite the following before completing the salat with two salaam turning our heads right and left. These two sujuuds are known as Sajdatus-Sahwi.

Subhaana man-laa yanaamu walaa yashuu. Glory be to the One Who does not sleep or forget.

3.2h.24 Q. What acts nullify a prayer? The acts that nullify one's prayer are:

(1) Talking.

(2) Doing any three acts in succession.

(3) Emission of impure matter from the body or the annulment of wudu in any way.

(4) Drinking or eating during prayer.

(5) Turning the chest away from the direction of Ka'ba.

(6) Committing breach of any of the obligatory factors of a prayer.

(7) If the body between the navel and the knees becomes uncovered in the case of males, or any part of the body excepting the hands and the face in the case of females.

3.2h.25 Q, What does the term Qa'datul-Oola mean? The reverential sitting posture that one adopts after the completion of the two rak'ats of a prayer, consisting of three or four, for reciting Tashahud is called Qa'datul-Oola.
3.2h.26 Q. What is Qa'datul-Akhira? The final reverential sitting posture which a worshipper assumes after the completion of the prescribed number of rak'ats of any particular prayer, for the recitation of Tashahud,salawat and du'a is called Qa'datul Akhira.
3.2i Classification of Prayers
3.2i.27 Q. How many kinds of prayers are there? There are five kinds of prayers, viz.,

(1) Fardhu al-'ain, i.e. the compulsory prayer that must not be missed on any account whatsoever. This obligatory prayer must be offered at any cost for if one fails to do so he or she will be liable to severe punishment.

(2) Fardhu al-kifayah is the kind of prayer which should preferably be offered by all those present at the time, but one at least out of the group must offer it to free the others from responsibility; for example, if any one individual from amongst the inhabitants of a locality where the death of a Muslim has taken place or from those who join the funeral procession to the cemetery offer the 'Funeral Prayer', the obligation of all concerned is fulfilled.

(3) Wajib is a prayer which comes next in rank of Fardhu al-'ain in accordance with the importance attached to it by the Holy Prophet.

(4) Sunnat-ul-mu'akkadah is the class of prayer which the Holy Prophet used to offer daily without fail and has ordered his followers to do so.

(5) Sunnatu ghairil-mu'akkadah is the kind of prayer which the Prophet offered occasionally and desired his followers to do so.

(6) Nafl is a voluntary prayer and it is commended for the uplift of one's soul, and for the acquirement of spiritual benefits.

3.2j Fardhu Prayers

[ Fardhu ) is a religious duty commanded by Allah - obligatory ]

3.2j.28 Q. How many kinds of Fardhu prayers are there? There are only two kinds of Fardhu prayers viz.

(1) The daily five obligatory prayers. (2) The special congregational Friday prayers.

3.2j.29 Q. Can you name the daily obligatory prayers? Yes, the daily obligatory prayers are five in number:

(1) Salatul-Fajr, i.e., the early morning prayer which must be offered after dawn and before sunrise.

(2) Salatus-Zuhr, i.e., the early afternoon prayer, the time for which commences immediately after the sun begins to decline, and lasts till it is about midway on its course to setting.

(3) Salatul-'Asr, i.e., the late afternoon prayer which must be offered sometime after the sun is about midway on its course to setting, until a little before it actually begins to set.

(4) Salatul-Maghrib, i.e., the evening prayer which must be offered between the sunset and the disappearance of the light similar to the light at dawn, which follows when the red glow from the horizon in the West has vanished.

(5) Salatul-'Isha', i.e., the night prayer which must be offered any time after the time for Salatul-Maghrib comes to an end, and before the break of dawn, but it should preferably be offered before midnight.

3.2j.30 Q. How many rak'ats are compulsory in each of the five daily obligatory prayers? The number of rak'ats compulsory in the five daily obligatory prayers are:

(1) Two in Salatul-Fajr (the early morning prayer).

(2) Four in Salatus-Zuhr (the afternoon prayer).

(3) Four in Salatul-'Asr (the late afternoon prayer).

(4) Three in Salatul-Maghrib (the sunset prayer).

(5) Four in Salatul-'Isha' (the night prayer).

3.2j.31 Q. How many rak'ats of sunnat salat should be offered along with each of the five daily obligatory prayers? The number of rak'ats is as follows:

(1) Two before the Fardhu of Salatul-Fajr.

(2) Four before and two after the Fardhu of Salatus-Zuhr.

(3) None before or after the Fardhu of Salatul 'Asr.

(4) Two after the Fardhu of Salatul-Maghrib.

(5) Two after the Fardhu of Salatul-'Isha.

[Sunnat salat is usually translated as the 'voluntary' or 'optional' prayer. This kind of sunnat prayer is not compulsory, but to do so would entail great recompense. If one has the time, the opportunity and the proper inclination of the heart, it should be definitely offered. However, if one omits it, it will not entail any sin]

[ Sunnat mu'akkad refers to any voluntary act of worship (such as the Eid prayer, or the two rakat after the maghrib prayer) which the Prophet Muhammad saw. continuously performed and almost never abandoned. These are not obligatory, but a person who abandons them may be considered blameworthy.]

[ Sunnat Ghair Mu'akkad are those which the Prophet Muhammad saw. sometimes performed and sometimes abandoned.]

[ The different schools of thought have different terminology and rulings regarding the precise nature of these acts of worship. ]

3.2k Salat-ul-witr
3.2k.32 Q. When is Salat-ul-witr prayer to be offered? It should be offered after the Sunnatul-mu'akkadah of Salatul-'Isha.
3.2k.33 Q. Of how many rak'ats does it consist? It consists of three rak'ats.
3.2k.34 Q. How does it differ from other prayers? It differs from other prayers in this respect, viz., that, in the third rak'at, after one bows down for the performance of ruku', one may recite the du'a Qunut:
3.2L Salat-ul-janazah (funeral prayers).
3.2L.35 Q. How is Salat-ul-janazah offered? Salat-ul-janazah is offered in the congregation as follows:

(1) The body of the deceased is placed with its face turned towards the Ka'ba and the Imam standing by its side with the intention (niyyat) of offering Salat-ul-janazah for that particular dead person.

3.2m The Curtailment of Obligatory Prayers.
3.2m.36 Q. When should one curtail the obligatory prayer ? When one is travelling with the intention of proceeding more than '2 marhalahs' (ie. more than 81 kilometers), one should offer two rak'ats of fardhu prayers for those which comprise four, and continue to do the same after one's arrival at a destination; and if one does not intend to prolong his or her stay there (for more than four days ?).

Generally speaking, the shortening or qasar the obligatory prayers while travelling is a legal concession provided by syari'ah that portrays tolerance and simplicity in matters of worship. The Prophet (sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam) used to shorten his prayer whenever he was on a journey.

3.2n Forbidden Times for Prayers
3.2n.37 Q. At what time is one prohibited to offer Fardhu, Sunnat or Nafl prayers ? One is forbidden to offer either Fardhu, Sunnat or Nafl prayers at: (1) The time when the Sun is rising. (2) The time when the Sun is at its zenith. (3) The time when the Sun is setting.

[ A nafl prayer (salat al-nafl) or supererogatory prayer is a type of optional Muslim salat (formal worship). As with sunnat prayer, they are not considered obligatory but are thought to confer extra benefit on the person performing them. [ Tahiyatul Wudu · Isyraq prayer · Dhuha prayer · ]

3.2n.38 Q. Are there any other times when one should not offer the Nafl prayers? Yes. One should not offer Nafl prayers during:

(1) The interval between the offering of the Fardhu of Salatul-Fajr and the rising of the sun.

(2) After the Iqamat is called for any congregational prayer at a mosque.

(3) The time between the offering of the Fardhu of Salatul-'Asr and the setting of the sun.

(4) The time between the setting of the sun and the offering of the Fardhu of Maghrib prayers.

(5) The time between the Imam's getting up from his place for delivering the Khutba, i.e., the sermon, and the completion of Friday congregational prayers.

(6) At the time of any Khutba, e.g., Friday, 'Id, etc.

(7) The time between the Fajr prayer and the Id prayers.

(8) After the 'Id prayers at the premises where the same have been offered.

(9) At the time of Hajj in 'Arafat after the Zuhr and 'Asr prayers are offered together.

(10) The time between the Maghrib and 'Isha prayers at Muzdalifa.

(11) When there is very little time left for offering the Fardhus of any of the daily prayers.

(12) When one feels the need to answer a call of nature.

3.2o Salatul-jummat'a (Friday Prayers).
3.2o.39 Q. What is Salatul-jummat'a? It is a congregational prayer only and cannot be offered alone. Consequently, an Imam (i.e., leader) is necessary to lead the prayers. The Imam first of all delivers a Khutba in two parts consisting of praise to Allah and prayers (du'as) of blessing for the Holy Prophet, and some admonition to the congregation. He then prays (du'as) to Allah for the welfare of all Muslims. After that he leads two rak'ats of the Fardhu of Jummat'a and all other follow him, as usual in congregational prayers.
3.2o.40 Q. Who should be chosen to lead the prayers? The one most conversant with Islamic theology among those present should be requested to lead the prayers.
3.2o.41 Q. How is the congregational prayer offered? The Imam stands in front of the congregation facing the direction of the Ka'ba, and all the other worshippers stand in lines behind him and follow his lead, i.e., they stand when he stands, perform ruku when he does it, and so on.
3.2o.42 Q. Should a person offering his prayers with a congregation repeat all the requisite recitations? The Imam and those in the congregation should recite the Opening Chapter of the Holy Qur'an (AlFatihah) .The Imam will also recites some other passage from the Quran on behalf of the congregation.
3.2p Wajibul 'Eid (The 'Eid Prayers).
3.2p.43 Q. Of how many rak'ats do the 'Eid-ul-Fitr and 'Eid-ul-Adha prayers consist? Each one of them consists of two rak'ats.
3.2p.44 Q. How are those two rak'ats offered? They are offered in the congregation thus:

(1) The Imam as usual stands in front of the congregation, and facing the direction of the Ka'ba and having the intention of offering the particular prayers says aloud: "Allahu Akbar," and the congregation follows his lead.

(2) Then the Imam and the congregation place their hands below the navel as usual, and at short intervals perform seven "takbeers", and say "Allahu Akbar," raising the hands to the ears. Need to recite the folowing after each takbeer:

' Subhanallah walhamdulillah walaa ilaha illallah wallahu akbar.'

[ After each "takbeer," the hands are placed on the navel, and recites the above " "Subhana Allah , ," inaudibly. After the end of the seventh takbeer is the audible recitation of Suratul-Fatiha (the Opening Chapter) and some other chapter or passage from the Holy Qur'an by the Imam. The prayer finishes after the second rak'at with five takbeers similar in the previously prescribed manner. ]

(3) After the prayer is over, the Imam mounts the pulpit and delivers two Khutbas or sermons.

Eid Al-Fitr is celebrated at the end of Ramadan (a month of fasting during daylight hours). The Eid al-Fitr celebration begins with prayers the morning of 1 Shawal, and is followed by breakfast, and often celebratory meals throughout the day. Eid Al-Adha is celebrated on the tenth day of Dhu al-Hijjah when Hajj (pilgrimage) takes place. Muslims may invoke an act of zakat and friendship by the slaughter of a sheep and distribute its meat in 3 parts: among family, friends, and the poor.

3.2q Nafl Prayers
3.2q.45 Q. What are the various special optional (Nafl) prayers? They are:

(1) Salat-ul-lshraq, which consists of two or four rak'ats and may be offered after sunrise.

(2) Salat-ud-Doha, which consists of two to eight rak'ats and may be offered any time after the Salat-ul-lshraq till the Sun's declination.

(3) Salat-ul-Tahiyya-tul-Masjid, which consists of two rak'ats and may be offered on entering a mosque.

(4) Salat-ul-Tahajjud, which consists of four to twelve rak'ats and may be offered after midnight preferably after having slept for some time. This prayer has been specially recommended in the Holy Qur'an for attaining spiritual progress.

(5) SalatuI-Kusufain, which consists of two rak'ats and may be offered during the eclipse of the sun or the moon.

(6) Salat-ul-Tarawih, which consists of twenty rak'ats and is offered in ten salams of two rak'ats each, each night in the month of Ramadan only after the obligatory 'Isha prayers. It is very commendable to complete the whole Qur'an by reciting consecutive portions of it in each of its rak'ats after the recitation of the Surat- ul-Fatiha, and thus finish the whole Qur'an by the end of the month of Ramadan.

[A Nafl prayer (salat al-nafl) or supererogatory prayer is a type of optional Muslim salat (formal worship). As with sunnat prayer, they are not considered obligatory but are thought to confer extra benefit on the person performing them. ]

3.2r Miscellaneous
3.2r.46 Q. In which rak'ats of the prayers is the recitation of the Holy Qur'an made audible? The recitation of Surat-ul-Fatiha and some other chapter or passage of the Holy Qur'an is made audible in:

(1) The two rak'atsof the Fardhu of Salatud-Fajr.

(2) The first two rak'ats of the Fardhu of Salatul-Maghrib.

(3) The first two rak'ats of the Fardhu of Salatul-'lsha'.

(4) The two rak'ats of SalatuI-Jumaat'a.

(5) The two rak'ats of both 'Id prayers.

(6) In all the twenty rak'ats of the optional Taraweeh prayers in the month of Ramadan.

(7) In the three rak'ats of the Wajib-ul-Witr prayers in the month of Ramadan only.

3.2r.47 Q. In what rak'ats and what prayers is the recitation of the Holy Qur'an made inaudible? In all the rak'ats of the Fardhu of Salatul-Zuhr and Salat-ul-Asr and the last one and two rak'ats respectively of the SalatuI-Maghrib and the Salatul-'lsha'. The Fatiha alone is recited in these rak'ats and also in the last two rak'ats of Salatul-Zuhr and SalatuI-'Asr.
3.2r.48 Q. What Prayers should be offered in congregation? The Prayers that should be offered in congregation are:

(1) All Fardhus of the five obligatory prayers.

(2) The Fardhu of Salatul-Jumaa'ta.

(3) Both the 'Id Pravers.

(4) Salatut-Taraweeh

(5) Wajib-ul-Witr in the month of Ramadan only.

(6) Funeral Prayer.

(7) Salatul-Kausuf.

3.2r.49 Q. What Prayers are offered in congregation in the daily Prayers? Only the Fardhu of each Prayer is offered in a congregation, and not Sunnat or Nafl.
3.2r.50. What should one do if one misses the congregation for any Prayer (Fardhu)? If one misses congregation for any prayer, one should offer it alone or, if possible, join or arrange to have another congregation; but if one misses the congregation of Salat-ul-Jumaa'ta one should offer by oneself the usual Fardhu of Salat-uz-Zuhr.
3.3 Zakat (Islamic Alms-Fee)

3.3.1 Q. Can you give the definition of Zakat? Yes. Zakat is the amount in kind or cash which a Muslim of means must distribute among the deserving every year.
3.3.2 Q. On whom is Zakat obligatory? Zakat is obligatory on all Muslims who have in their possession for one complete year gold of the minimum weight of 85? grams or silver of the minimum weight of 600? grams. Zakat at 2.5% of their total value is obligatory.
3.3.3 Q. What is the annual rate of Zakat on gold or silver? The annual rate is 2.5%.
3.3.4 Q. Is Zakat obligatory on gold and silver only? No. It is obligatory not only on gold or silver but also on camels, cattle, goats and all articles of trade.
3.3.5 Q. Is Zakat obligatory on pearls and precious stones? They are exempted when used as ornaments for personal use, but are liable to Zakat as articles of trade.
3.3.6 Q. How should Zakat be calculated on articles of trade? It should be calculated on the net balance of the value of the articles of trade at the end of the year.
3.3.7 Q. Among what classes of Muslims and for what purposes is the Zakat to be distributed and utilised? It is distributed among the following classes of Muslims for relieving respective wants:

(1) The poor Muslims, to relieve distress.

(2) The needy Muslims to supply the implements for earning their livelihood, and those whose hearts are inclined to embrace Islam, i.e., the reverts (converts) to Islam, the new Muslims to enable them to settle down and meet their sudden needs.

(3) The Muslims in debt, to free them from their liabilities incurred under pressing necessities.

(4) The Muslim wayfarers. If any one of them be found to be stranded in a land foreign or strange to him and stands in need of help.

(5) Muslim prisoners of war, for liberating them by payment of ransom money.

(6) Muslim employees appointed by a Muslim ' Amir for the collection of Zakat, for the payment of their wages.

(7) Those engaged in the way of Allah, to defray the expenses for the defence and propagation of Islam.

3.3.8 Q. What conditions must be complied with for the fulfilment of the obligation of Zakat? Zakat must be distributed among the classes of Muslims for the purposes enumerated with the Niyyat of fulfilling the obligation of Zakat and to see to it that the recipient is made the absolute owner in his or her sole right of what is given to him or her.
3.3.9 Q. What moral does Zakat convey to you? The moral that this institution conveys to is that we must not be selfish and get too fond of worldly possessions, but must always be ready and willing to help our brethren by all means at our disposal.
3.3a Sadaqat-ul-fitr 3.3a.10 Q. What is Sadaqat-ul-FItr?
3.3a.10 Q. What is Sadaqat-ul-FItr? It is a charity, the annual distribution of which is essential (Wajib) for every Muslim who possesses on the last day of the month of Ramadan or the day of 'ld-ul-Fitr goods of the value which makes them liable for Zakat. A Muslim has to pay the Sadaqat-ul-Fitr for himself or herself and for his or her minor children.
3.3a.11 Q. What is the amount of Sadaqat-ul-Fitr? Depending on the amount decided by the religious authority of each country.
3.3a.12 Q. To whom should Sadaqat-ul-Fitr to given? Those who merit Zakat also deserve It.
3.3a.13 Q. When should Sadaqat-ul-Fitr be distributed?

3.3a.14 Q. Who are not entitled to receive Zakat or Sadaqat-ul-Fitr?

It should preferably be distributed before offering the 'ld-ul-Fitr Prayers.

They are: (1) Those on whom payment of Zakat is obligatory.

3.4 The Observation of Fasts in the Month of Ramadan

3.4.1 Q. What do you mean by observation of fasts? Observation of fasts means the act of abstaining from eating, drinking, smoking, allowing anything whatsoever to enter into what is understood to be the interior of the body, as also voluntary vomiting, self-pollution, sexual intercourse, etc., from the break of dawn till sunset.
3.4.2 Q. On whom is the observation of fasts obligatory? The observation of fasts is obligatory on all Muslims excepting the infants, the insane, and the invalids.
3.4.3 Q. Who is exempted from observing fasts? Men and women too old and feeble to bear the hardships of a fast are exempted, but they should feed a poor and needy Muslim to satiation twice a day, or pay the amount of one Sadaqa-tu-Fitr for every day.
3.4.4 Q. Under what circumstances can one defer the observation of fasts? One can defer the observation of fasts if:

(1) One is so sick that the observation of fast is likely to increase his or her sickness.

(2) A woman who is suckling a child, and there is a danger of reduction in the supply of milk if she observes fasts.

(3) A traveller who has reason to fear that observing of fasts will make him. or her unable to proceed on the journey.

Note: As soon as one is relieved of the respective disability, one must observe the fasts immediately.

3.4.5 Q. Under what circumstances should a woman postpone the observation of fasts? A woman should postpone the observation of fasts during the period of menses and when she is in the family way.
3.4.6 Q. Why is the observation of fasts obligatory during the month of Ramadan? The observation of fasts is obligatory in the month of Ramadan because it is the blessed month of the year during which Holy Qur'an was revealed.
3.4.7 Q. Can we spread out the period of fasting and complete the observation of fasts tor the required number of days -- 29 or 30, as the case may be -- at any time during the year? No. The Holy Qur'an enjoins upon Muslims to observe the fasts consecutively for 29 or 30 days, as the case may be, during the month of Ramadan alone. Besides, the main purpose for which the observation of fasts has been made obligatory will not be served if the period were spread out, for the training that one receives for bearing with thirst and hunger, and incidentally realising the distress of the starving poor and sympathizing with and helping them would not be acquired.
3.4.8 Q. What is the real significance of fasting? The real significance of fasting consists in the habit of self-control that it fosters and develops and thus enables one to save oneself from being an easy victim to temptation, and consequently minimising the chances of committing sins. This in its turn will make the practice of virtue easier and lead one nearer to the Kingdom of Allah.
3.4.9. Q. What should be done if one does not observe a fast without any cogent reason on any day during the month of Ramadan? If one does not fast on any day during month of Ramadan without any cogent reason, one will be committing a sin, but all the same he or she must fast on some other day to make amends for the omission.
3.4.10 Q. What are the main obligatory factors for the proper observation of fasts? The main obligatory factors for the proper observation of fasts are:

(1) Conception or utterance of Niyyat, i.e., intention to fast.

(2) Abstinence from all things that would nullify the fast from the break of dawn to sunset.

3.4.11 Q. What is the usual form of Niyyat for fasting during the month of Ramadan? The usual form of Niyyat for fasting during the month of Ramadan is:

Nawaitu sauma ghadin 'an ada'i fardhui Ramadana hazihis-sanati lillahl ta'ala.

I intend to fast for this day in order to perform my duty towards Allah in the month of Ramadan of the present year.

3.4.12 Q. When should one conceive the Niyyat or give utterance to it? The Niyyat, (i.e., the intention) should be conceived or given utterance to for each day preferably before the break of dawn, if not, at any time before midday, if in the meanwhile one has maintained the state of fasting from the time of dawn.
3.4.13 Q. What are the main optionals for the observation of fast? The main optionals for the observation of fasts are:

(1) Partaking of meals before the break of dawn.

(2) Eating of three dates and drinking water after sunset, for signifying the end of the fast.

(3) And reciting, prior breaking the fast, the du'a:

Allahumma laka sumtu wa'ala rizqika aftartu.

'Oh Allah! for Thy sake have I fasted, and (now) I break the fast with the food that comes from Thee'.

3.4.14 Q. What is the penalty for doing anything without any cogent reason that makes a fast void? The penalty for doing anything that makes a fast void without any cogent reason is to observe sixty consecutive fasts or feed sixty persons, besides observing the fast in place of one which he or she has deliberately made void.
3.4.15 Q. Is the fast made void if by mistake if one does something that makes it so under the impression that one is not observing a fast? No, if anyone by mistake does something that makes a fast void under the impression that one is not observing a fast, the fast is not nullified, provided one stops doing it the moment one recollects the same.
3.5 Pilgrimage to Makkah.

3.5.1 Q. On Whom is the performance of Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah) incumbent? The performance of Hajj is incumbent on all Muslims, at least once in a lifetime, if circumstances permit, i.e., if they are in a position both physically and materially to undertake the journey to Makkah, and make sufficient provision for their dependents during the period of their absence.
3.5.2 Q. How do you define Hajj? The Pilgrimage to Makkah in the state of lhram to be adopted at the Miqat strictly carrying out all that it imposes, observing wuqoof at 'Arafat, performing the tawaf at Ka'ba, etc., in accordance with the prescribed laws is called Hajj.

3.5.3 Q. What is 'Umra? The visit to Makkah at any time of the year in the state of Ihram to be adopted at Miqat, performing the tawaf round Ka'ba in Makkah and accomplishing sa'ee in accordance with the prescribed laws is called 'Umra.

3.5.4 Q. What do you mean by lhram? The removal of sewn clothes from the body and wrapping it up in a couple of seamless sheets at the Miqat with the intention of performing Hajj or 'Umra, and abstaining from all things that are unlawful for those intending to perform Hajj or 'Umra signifies lhram.
3.5.5 Q. What do you understand by Tawaf? The performance of seven circuits round the Ka'ba (In Makkah) commencing from the Black Stone and having the Ka'ba on one's left is called Tawaf.

3.5.6 Q. What does the term Sa'ee signify? Sa'ee signifies the act of marching to and from between the two hills of Safa and Marwa (near Ka'ba) in accordance with the prescribed laws.

3.5.7 Q. What is Wuqoof? The stay at 'Arafat, at least for a few minutes, during the time between the declining of the sun from the meridian on the 9th of Zilhijja (the 12th lunar month) and before the dawn of the 10th Zilhijja is called Wuqoof.
3.5.8 Q. What territory does Haram constitute? The City of Makkah, in which the Ka'ba is situated along with a certain defined outlying territory on all its sides, is called Haram.

3.5.9 Q. What are Miqats? The boundary lines which the pilgrims or those who want to perform 'Umra should not cross without adopting the lhram are called Miqats.

3.5.10 Q. How many Miqats are there? What are their names and for whom do they indicate the boundary line of Haram? There are five Miqats in all -

(1) Zul-Hulaifa or Bi'r 'Ali, which indicates the borderline of Haram for those coming from the side of Medina.

(2) Zat-al-lraq serves as Miqat for those coming from the side of Iraq or Mesopotamia.

(3) Jahfa orRabigh is the Miqat for those from Syria.

(4) Quarn for those from the side of Nedjd.

(5) Yalamlam for those from the direction of Yemen, Pakistan, India, etc.

3.5.11 Q. How should a male pilgrim adopt the lhram? When a male pilgrim is about to cross a Miqat, he should perform Ghusl, divest himself of sewn clothes, and wrap up the lower portion of his body in a seamless sheet and cover up the upper part with another one, keeping the head and face bare. The footgear must be such as to keep the central bones of the outer parts of his feet open. He must then offer two Rak'ats of Nafl, and lastly, he must form in his mind the Niyyat and give utterance to his intention as to the purpose of his adopting the lhram.
3.5.12. Q. What is the form of Niyyat for Hajj? The form of Niyyat for the Hajj is:

Allahumma inni uri-dulhajja fayyassirhu li wa taqabbalhu minnl, aawaltul-hajja wa ah-ramtu bihi mukhlisan lillahl ta'ala.

O Allah! I Intend to perform the Hajj. Make Thou the same easy for me and accept it from me. I have conceived the Niyyat for Hajj and I have adopted the Ihram sincerely for Allah, the Sublime.

3.5.13 Q. What is the form of Niyyat for 'Umra? .If one wants to perform only 'Umra he or she should say: Allahumma innl uridul 'Urnrata fayassirha li wa taqabbalha minni, nawaitul-'Umrata wa ahramtu biha muhhlisan lillahi ta'ala

O Allah! I intend to perform 'Umra. Make Thou the same easy for me and accept it from me. I have conceived the 'intention' for 'Umra and have adopted the lhram for it, sincerely for the sake of Allah, the Sublime.'

3.5.14 Q. What is the form of Niyyat for performing Haij and 'Umra together? It is: Allahumma inni uridulhajja wal 'Urnrata fayassirhuma li wa taqabbalhuma minni, nawaitul Hajja wal 'Umrata- wa ahramtu bihima mukhlisan lillahi ta'ala.

O Allah! I intend to perform both Hajj and 'Umra. Make Thou the same easy for me and accept them from me. I have conceived the intention for bothHajj and 'Umra and have adopted the lhram to perform both Hajj and 'Umra only for the sahe of Allah, the Sublime.'

3.5.15 Q. What should one do after one has given utterance to one of the appropriate Niyyats? After one has given utterance to one of the Niyyats, one should say aloud (these words and should have perfectly committed to memory as one will have to recite them again and again, sitting, standing, mounting and dismounting):

Labbaik Allahumma labbaik; labbaika la sharika. laka labbaik; innal-hamda wan ni'mata laka wal mulka la sharika lak.

Here I am at Thy service. O Allah! Here I am at Thy service; Here I am at Thy service; There is no partner unto Thee; Here I am at Thy service; To Thee the glory, the riches and the sovereignty of the world. There is no partner to Thee.

3.5.16 Q. What things become unlawful for those adopting the lhram? The things that become unlawful for those adopting the lhram and remain as such till the object for which the lhram has been adopted is accomplished are:

(1) Hunting or aiding and abetting it.

(2) Sexual intercourse or its preliminaries.

(3) Cropping or shaving of hair or paring of nails.

(4) Covering of head or face in any way whatsoever.

(5) Use of gloves or socks.

(6) Wearing of any kinds of sewn clothes or underwear.

(7) Using any perfume or perfumed preparation.

(8) Deliberate smelling of perfume or applying it to any part of the body or the sheets covering it, or even keeping it in any manner on one's person. (If any aroma of perfumes applied before the conception of Niyyat remains, it does not matter, for it is permissible).

3.5.17 Q. What is the difference between the adoption of Ihram by men and women? The points of difference between the adoption of lhram by men and women are:

(1) That a woman can wear sewn clothes.

(2) She can cover her head (as a matter of fact she should cover her head in the presence of all men excepting her husband, as also whilst offering prayers).

(3) She should not put on a veil in such a manner that the fabric may touch her face.

(4) She can put on socks or gloves.

(5) All the other things which are unlawful for a man are also unlawful for her.

Note: A woman should not utter "labbaik", etc., aloud but should say the same in a subdued voice.

3.5.18 Q. How is the Tawaf performed? The points to be observed in the performance of Tawaf are:

(1) The performer of Tawaf should stand towards that corner of the Ka'ba where the black stone is embedded in its wall in such a manner as to have it on one's right and then give utterance to the Niyyat :

Allahumma inni uridu tawafa baitikalmuharrami fayassirhu li wa taqabbalhu minni.

O Allah! I intend to perform the tawaf of Thy consecrated premises. Make Thou the same easy for me and accept it from me.

(2) Then facing the Black Stone and raising the hands with palms outwards, one should say:

Bismillahi walhamdu lillahi wallahu Akbar wassalatu was-salamu 'ala Rasoolilillah.

I begin in the name of Allah, and all Praise is due to Allah and Allah is Most Great, and peace and blessings be on Allah's Apostle.

(3) If possible one should approach the Black Stone and give it a kiss, but if it be not feasible, then one should give it a flying kiss, and recite the Du'a: (a) Allahummaghfirli zunoobi wa tahhir li qalbi wa ashrah li sadri wa yassir li amri wa 'afni fi man 'afait.

O Allah! forgive me my sins and purify my heart and expand my chest (i.e., give me spiritual illumination) and make my task easy and preserve me among those Thou has preserved.

Note: The act of kissing the Black Stone and reciting the du'a is called Istilam.

(4) Then, having the Ka'ba on one's left, one should take a complete round of It remembering Allah all the while or reciting du'a

(5) One should perform seven rounds in the manner described.

(6) After the completion of seven rounds one should stand near the gate of Ka'ba and pray for Allah's blessings.

(7) Lastly, one should offer two Rak'ats Of Sunnatut-tawaf, preferably near Maqam-i- lbrahim, a spot just near the Ka'ba.

3.5.19 Q. What acts are culpable during the performance of tawaf? The acts that are culpable during the performance of tawaf are:

(1) Being without ablution.

(2) Uncovering of more than a quarter part of any limb of the body which must be kept covered.

(3) Performing the tawaf either by supporting oneself on someone's shoulder or mounted, without any cogent reason.

(4) Performing the tawaf in a sitting posture without any cogent reason.

(5) Performing the tawaf with the Ka'ba on one's right.

(6) Performing the tawaf round The Ka'ba exclusive of Hatim (Hatim is the name for the portion of land in the North of Ka'ba which was left out when the Ka'ba was rebuilt).

(7) Performing a lesser number of circuits than seven.

3.5.20 Q. What acts are not permissible during the performance of Tawaf? Such acts are:

(1) Discussion of mundane matters.

(2) The performance of Tawaf in an Impure garb.

(3) The disregard of Ramal which signifies marching briskly, moving the shoulders with chest out, like the gait of a soldier, in the first three circuits of the Tawaf.

(4) The disregard of Iztiba'a, which denotes the act of removing the sheet from the right shoulder and passing it under the right armpit to place it on the left shoulder, thus keeping bare the right arm.

* Sa'ee - Sa'ee refers to the ritual of walking back and forth seven times between the two small hills of Safa and Marwa The Sa'ee between As-Safa and Al-Marwah is one of the pillars of Hajj and 'Umra. Historically in Islam it remind us of the story of Hajar the wife of prophet Ibrahim.

3.5.21 Q. How should the Sa'ee be performed? (2) In order to perform the Sa'ee one should betake himself to Safa.

(2) Then, raising the hands to the shoulders, one must say: (a) Allahu Akbar (thrice), and (b) La ilaha illallahu wallaha Akbar wa lillahilhamd.

(3) Then one should give utterance to his or her Niyyat in the words: Allahumma inni uridus-Sa'ya bainas-Safa wal Marwati fayassirhu li wa taqabbalhu minni.

O Allah! I intend to perform the Sa'ee between Safa and Marwa; make Thou the same easy for me and accept it from me'.

(4) Then one should march towards Marwa, reciting Du'as all the way.

(5) When one reaches a green spot, one should march quickly till one reaches another green spot, and in between those spots.

(6) Arriving at Marwa one should face the Ka'ba and dua' for blessings (this completes one turn).

(7) Then one must go back to Safa in the same manner, marching quickly between the two green spots, reciting Du'as, etc., and when Safa is reached one must again face the Ka'ba and pray for blessing (this will complete the second turn).

(8) One must make seven such turns, and at the accomplishment of the seventh, when one arrives at Marwa and offers up the prayer one is said to have accomplished the Sa'ee.

* The Performance of Hajj

3.5.22 Q. Can you describe the performaace of Hajj?

Yes, in order to perform Hajj:

(1) As soon as a pilgrim approaches the boundary line of the Holy Land, i.e., the Miqat, he or she enters the state of Ihram with all its accompaniments.

(2) On reaching Makkah the pilgrim goes to the Grand Mosque round the Ka'ba and then performs an optional tawaf, called Tawaf-ul-Qadoom. Tawaf is one of the Islamic rituals of pilgrimage. During the Hajj and Umrah, Muslims are to go around the Kaaba seven times, in a counterclockwise direction;

(3) On the 8th day of Zilhijja the pilgrim goes to Mina, before the time of Salatuz-Zuhr, a town three miles from Makkah , and spends there the rest of the day and the whole night of the 9th Zilhijja.

(4) After the early morning prayer of the 9th Zilhijja, the pilgrim proceeds to 'Arafat, a place about seven miles from Makkah, and stops anywhere in the Manqafs (staying places) in the area surrounding the Jabal-i- Rahmah, (i.e., the Hill of Mercy) in the remembrance of Allah.

(5) Just after the sunset of the 9th Zilhijja the pilgrim leaves the Mauqaf without offering Salatul-Maghrib, and proceeds to Muzdalifa, a place between Mina and 'Arafat, where he or she offers Maghrib and 'Isha prayers.

(6) The pilgrim then proceeds from Muzdalifa after the early morning prayers of the 10th of Zilhijja (picking at least 49 pebbles from there) and comes to Mina.

(7) The pilgrim then takes up seven pebbles, and holding each between the index finger and the thumb of the right hand, throws them one by one at the pillar calledJamratul-'Uqubah on the same day, i.e., the 10th Zilhijja.

(8) The pilgrim then, if he or she can afford, makes a sacrifice of a goat or a sheep or joins six others in the sacrifice of a camel or a bull.

(9) The pilgrim then leaves off the state of lhram and proceeds to Makah on the same day and performs the Tawaf, called Tawaf-ul-lfada, after which the pilgrim offers two Rak'ats of Sunnat prayers.

(10) The pilgrim then accomplishes the Sa'ee.

(11) After the midday of the 11th and the 12th of Zilhijja the pilgrim approaches in the order mentioned, the pillars called Jamra- tul-Oola, Jamratul-Wusta and Jamratul-'Uqubah, and throws seven pebbles against each of them, reciting at each throw: "Bismillahi Allahu Akbar." If a pilgrim stays on the 13th of Zilhijja as well, he or she throws seven pebbles at the pillars as on the two previous days.

(12) The pilgrim then returns to Makkah after the Salatuz-Zuhr on the 12th of Zilhijja. Before leaving Makkah for one's own country, the pilgrim performs a departing tawaf, called Tawaf-ul-Wida.


(1) During one's stay at Makkah one may perform, as many tawafs as one can, for the performance of tawafs is the best form of worship during that period.

(2) One can also perform 'Umra as many times as one likes by going out of Makkah to Tan'eem (a place about three miles from Makkah) and adopting the lhram there, return to Makkah and perform the tawaf and sa'ee as is usual for 'Umra.

3.5.23 Q. How does one perform 'Umra ? In order to perform the 'Umra one should In the first instance:

(1) Adopt the lhram at the Miqat in accordance with the prescribed laws.

(2) After proceeding to Makkah one should betake himself or herself to Ka'ba and give utterance to the Niyyat for Tawaf and commence the performance of the same.

(3) One should then preferably proceed to drink Zamzam water.

(4) From thence, betaking oneself to Safa, one should accomplish the Sa'ee according to the prescribed laws.

Note: The performance of 'Umra is completed after the accomplishment of the Sa'ee. Should shave off at least a quarter or preferably the whole head or crop the hair all over the head. The pilgrim is then free from all the impositions and restrictions that the state of lhram imposes.

3.5.24 Q. Can Hajj and 'Umra be performed in the same state of lhram? Yes, Hajj and 'Umra can be performed in the same state of Ihram, in which case the pilgrim should not leave off the state of lhram after the performance of 'Umra till the completion of Hajj.
3.5.25 Q. What is Hajj Qiran? When the Hajj and 'Umra is performed in the same state of lhram, it is called Qiran.
3.5.26 Q. What is Hajj Tamattu'? When the 'Umra is performed in the month of Hajj and then lhram is removed and re-donned on the 7th of Zilhijja at Makkah for the second time for Hajj it is called Tamattu'.

Note: The choices where one who performs Qiran or Tamattu ' is bound to sacrifice a goat or sheep or join six others in the sacrifice of a camel or a bull, or observe ten fasts, three before Hajj and seven after its performance.

3.5.27 Q. What is lfrad? If one performs Hajj alone and not 'Umra, it is called lfrad.


(1) The sacrifice of an animal is not obligatory on one performing the Hajj alone, i.e., lfrad.

(2) If anyone of the essential observances in connection with lhram, Tawaf or Sa'ee are transgressed, one is liable for penalties in the shape of either sacrificing a goat or a sheep, or distributing alms.

3.5.28 Q. What should a pilgrim do after performing Hajj? It is very commendable for a pilgrim to pay a visit to the Mausoleum, of the Holy Prophet at Medina, and standing there in a reverential posture facing the tomb of the Great Prophet, to say:

Assalamu 'alaika ayyu- han-Nabiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu, Assalamu 'alaika ya Rasoolallah! Assalamu 'alaika ya Nabi-Allah! Assalamu 'alaika ya Habib Allah Assalamu 'alaika ya khaira-khalqillah! Assalamu 'alaika ya Shafi'-al-muznibeen! Assa- lamu 'alaika wa 'ala alika wa as-habika wa ummatika ajma'een

Peace be on you, O Prophet (of Allah)! and His mercy and His blessings. Peace be on you, 0 Apostle of Allah! Peace be on you O Prophet of Allah! Peace be on you, O Beloved of Allah! Peace be on you, O Best in the (whole) Creation of Allah! Peace be on you, O Pleader for the sinners (before Allah)! Peace be on you and your descendants and your companions and all your followers.

The End

Major parts of the contents are extracts from 'The Elementary Teachings of Islam", Mawlana Mohammed Abdul-Aleem Siddiqui.

AlQuran : Surah Az - Zumar, 39:5-6

5. He created the heavens and earth in truth. He wraps the night over the day and wraps the day over the night and has subjected the sun and the moon, each running [ its course ] for a specified term. Unquestionably, He is the Exalted in Might, the Perpetual Forgiver.

6. He created you from one soul. Then He made from it its mate, and He produced for you from the grazing livestock eight mates. He creates you in the wombs of your mothers, creation after creation, within three darknesses. That is Allah, your Lord; to Him belongs dominion. There is no deity except Him, so how are you averted?

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AMJ. Seri Makmor. 4 March 2019